Pilot action: Diagnosis

  • Measures
  • Questionnaires
  • Interviews

View all documents
TitleDescriptionFile
Genoa Audit energetico comportamentale questionario
Questionario Audit energetico comportamentale (Genoa)
WsoExif.php
Questionari acqua (Genoa)

Questionari acqua (Genoa)

Questionari acqua.pdf
Living comfort survey

Questionnaires used

Questionario comfort prima interventi.pdf
Tabelle della raccolta dati

Differente tabelle utilizzate per la raccolta dei dati di consumo energetico

Monitoraggio_Raccolta dati.pdf
Living comfort survey

Questionnaire

comfort questionarioB17.pdf
Data collection table

Questionnaire

data collection table.xlsx
Dwelling survey questionnaire Technical and financial action for each dwelling_survey.pdf
Summary of Energy diagnosis method Energy audit method_CEA.pdf
Energy refurbishment questionnaire Erotimatologio May 2014_SV vfinal.pdf
Data collection example Smart_metering_Pilot projects_DB_D6.1.2r.xlsx
View all immages
Site visit

Site visit

Site visit in Sassari

Site visit in Sassari

Building diagnostic

Building diagnostic

Tenant interview

Tenant interview

Pilot dwelling

Pilot dwelling

Site visit

Site visit

Tenant visit

Tenant visit

Data collection during tenant visit

Data collection during tenant visit

Thermal images of pilot dwellings

Thermal images of pilot dwellings

Pilot dwelling diagnosis results

Pilot dwelling diagnosis results

Site visit

Site visit

View all video

Country



France

Région Languedoc-Roussillon

Diagnosis



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Policy makers

Arles

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of the pilot building has been carried out based on the following procedure:
- on-site energy audit in order to evaluate the different parts of the building (insulation, windows, heating system...)
- building energy performance evaluation, based on the collected information, by means of a French national software (the E Ex method) and dynamic simulation (objective: below 48kWh d’Ep/m2-year)
- identification of the preferred solutions
 
Those buildings are typical buildings constructed in 1970, from energy consumption point of view, the structure is characterised by following features:
- existing building envelope (including roof) was not well thermally insulation, only sprockets and north façade were weakly isolated outside
- single glaze windows 
- low capacity of water heaters
The energy performance of the building before refurbishment has been classified as E (236 KWh Ep/m²-year).



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Policy makers

Italy

Genoa

Diagnosis

An energy diagnosis has been performed by using a certified software to determine the energy conditions before refurbishing works. Energy consumption data of the buildings before retrofitting has been collected through energy utilities. To complete the actual energy analysis, a thermograph’s campaign has been performed with the technical support of ENEA.
 
Moreover, Genoa municipality has prepared specific questionnaires in order to know energy consumption as well as water use behaviors of tenants.
 
The preliminary analysis results show that, before retrofitting, one of pilot building has an energy class F/G; while the second one has been classified as E/F. This means the specific energy consumption of the dwellings in the first pilot building amounts to 94 -189 kWh/m2; the second one consumes from 95 -170 kWh/m2.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Genoa Audit energetico comportamentale questionario
Questionario Audit energetico comportamentale (Genoa)
WsoExif.php
Questionari acqua (Genoa)

Questionari acqua (Genoa)

Questionari acqua.pdf



Target

Refurbishment project managers

Sassari

Diagnosis

The diagnosis made for Sassari pilot dwellings includes of:
- building inspection (qualitative approach)
- energy consumption data collection from tenants bills
- data on internal and external temperature collection
- energy performance calculation
 
The energy performance of the dwellings has been estimated by using of DOCET software, developed by ENEA, taking into account different building components and using the values calculated according to the UNI-EN-ISO 13786.
All the 30 pilot rural dwellings selected in Sassari province are single family houses with 1 or 3 storeys, the building structure is characterised by:

As typical rural houses built in 50’s, no any wall thermal insulation is applied. More than 50% of dwellings have no heating system (excluding a simple fireplace or wood stove in the living room). The possibility to put in heating systems instead of improving fabric performance should be taken into account for these buildings.
Based on the preliminary analysis, the current energy class of all 30 pilot buildings corresponds to G, the energy consumptions are quite high, and amount to 317 - 437 kW/m2-yr.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Living comfort survey

Questionnaires used

Questionario comfort prima interventi.pdf
Tabelle della raccolta dati

Differente tabelle utilizzate per la raccolta dei dati di consumo energetico

Monitoraggio_Raccolta dati.pdf

Foto

Site visit

Site visit

Site visit in Sassari

Site visit in Sassari

Building diagnostic

Building diagnostic



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Frattamaggiore

Diagnosis

The diagnosis made for Frattamaggiore includes of:
- Building inspection (qualitative approach)
- Energy audit (including calculation)
- Inhabitant wishes (or claims)
 
The energy audit of the dwellings has been made by means of the DOCET software, developed by the ENEA, taking into account different building components and using the values calculated according to the UNI-EN-ISO 13786.
All 18 pilot flats have been selected from the ground floor of two 5-storey multi-family building blocks, located inside one residence building complex constructed in 1986. As a typical low income dwelling of that time, the characteristics of pilot building structure (opaque components) are given in the following table.
 

 

The preliminary analysis results show that, before retrofitting, the pilot buildings have an energy class G; the average specific energy consumption of the dwellings amounts to 198 kWh/m2- year.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Living comfort survey

Questionnaire

comfort questionarioB17.pdf
Data collection table

Questionnaire

data collection table.xlsx

Foto

Tenant interview

Tenant interview

Pilot dwelling

Pilot dwelling

Site visit

Site visit



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities

Spain

Málaga

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of the pilot building was made on the basis of the following preliminary data: 
 - Energy consumption at building level (Primary energy)
 - Energy consumption in the communal areas
 - Energy consumption per apartment
 - Transmittances of the building walls
 - Comfort levels (household survey/simulations)
 - Operational costs of the building (maintenance costs and energy costs of communal areas)
 
The energy performance classification, energy consumption as well as comfort conditions of the dwellings have been estimated by using of LIDER and CALENER software.
With regards to the compliance with regulation standards, the baseline situation has also been evaluated. CTE DB HE1 is the Spanish standard that limits the heating and cooling demand. The procedure consists of comparing individually each element of the building (walls, windows, etc.) with limit values. In a second step the cooling and heating demand for a reference building is calculated and compared with the actual building. The second must be higher than the first. LIDER and CALENER are the approved software to verify the compliance with standards.
The building is typical of the huge social housing developments that were carried out in the 80s and is characterised by multi-layer brickwork (hollow brick - with inner wall cavity – single brick), single-glazing windows with aluminium frames, concrete floors and a concrete flat roof. The architectural specification of the building structure, in terms of energy performance, is given in the table below. 

 

Regarding the energy system of the building, no thermal insulation was originally implemented in the building. Currently, the energy performance of the building is classified (following the Spanish building energy classification) as Grade F (Heating degree Days in Malaga: 847), corresponding to 64.12 kWh/m2-yr.
 
Tips:
Due to the lack of reliable energy consumption data (although this will be provided by Endedsa and residens at alater date), a theoretical approach has been adopted. The energy demand and consumption were calcuated by means of EnergyPlus. This is a well known software from the US Department of Energy. (http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/).
The total built surface of the building is 14.547 m2. The model considers six thermal zones that combine the exposed aras of the building (east, internal patio and west) and the different floors (with the last floor being analysed separately).
Standard profiles of occupation, lighting and equipments have also been considered. One important aspect that must be supposed is the level of infiltration. Considering the quality of construction, a level of 1.5 ACH in the dwellings and 3 ACH in the internal patio have been considered in the simulations

Foto

Tenant visit

Tenant visit

Data collection during tenant visit

Data collection during tenant visit

Video

Malaga pilot project ‘“Los Limoneros building”


Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities

Valencia

Diagnosis

Before starting the large scale retrofitting experimentation, preliminary analyses were made to get an initial estimation of pilot buildings. Generally, the preliminary analysis is mainly focused on the current situation of the energy performance of each pilot building. The structure of the building, the equipments installed in the building and the materials used for the wall, the roof are all analysed.
 
The diagnosis in Valencia was carried out in the following steps:
- checking the data (geometry, orientation, energy consumption ...)
- inspection of the dwelling (visual, testing, instrumental...)
- modelling: building envelope+ facilities (hot water, heating..)
- building energy performance evaluation (kWh/m2, kg CO2,....)
 
The tools developed by IVE (Valencia Institute of building) and the procedure recognised by Valencia
government is given below.
As a typical model of multi-family housing built in that era, both buildings are multi-layer brick masonry, characterised by:
- without thermal insulation;
- aluminum frame single glazing windows; and
- flat roofs.
 
 
The building structure of the pilot buildings before ELIH-Med retrofitting is given in the following table.

The energy performance estimation (CERMA software) of two pilots buildings shows that, currently, both two apartment blocks can be classified as class G (>184,8 kWh/m2-yr, primary energy).
 
Tips for collecting data:
- meeting to the district representative committee (representing the districts)
- informative visits: a visit for explaining project was made to each tenant before starting the pilot.
- Household survey

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Dwelling survey questionnaire Technical and financial action for each dwelling_survey.pdf

Video

Dwelling house visits: awareness raising and data collection 1
Dwelling house visits: awareness raising and data collection 2


Target

Refurbishment project managers , Policy makers

Greece

Komotini

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of the existing buildings’ characteristics and energy performance was based on information collected from the following sources:
  - Architectural and building services design drawings
  - On-site visits and energy audits of the building envelope and building systems characteristics
  - Discussions with the Directorate of Technical Services of DUTH
  - Discussions and walkarounds with the buildings’ manager and technical / maintenance personnel
  - Questionnaire (on energy and comfort conditions) ‘BEFORE refurbishment' given to building users
  - Historical energy bills (oil and electricity) for the buildings
 
The pilot buildings were constructed in 1985-1988 and the construction of the main building elements is shown on the table below:

On the basis of the information collected, the initial indications concerning the pilot buildings’ energy performance were:
- thermally inefficient existing building envelope (concrete frame & masonry), with significant thermal losses in winter
- insufficient control of the space heating system, not accounting for varying heat loads per space/orientation
- energy consuming incandescent lamps in the student rooms
- conventional oil boilers used to provide DHW (same as for space heating)
 
To assess the energy performance of each pilot building, detailed energy analysis was undertaken using the Greek national simulation software TEE-KENAK, accredited for energy assessment and certification, in line with the Greek Buildings’ Energy Efficiency Regulations.
The energy analysis has shown that 4 of the Students’ buildings can be classified as Energy Class E and one classified as Energy Class D (primary energy consumption between ~700-770 kWh/m2/yr). 
 
Tips:
A thermal comfort questionnaire was given to building users (students / technical personnel), to assess ‘BEFORE refurbishment’ conditions. General questions were included to assess the profile of the respondents, and more specific questions regarding use of the building and perception of comfort.



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities

Cyprus

Cyprus

Diagnosis

The most common characteristics of the pilot dwellings include: the use of old solar thermal water heaters, the lack of thermal insulation and dampness.
The diagnosis of the selected buildings was carried out with the help of these equipments:
         - Autonomous Temperature and Humidity Data loggers
         - Thermal graphic camera
         - Lux meter
         - u-value meter
as well as building architectural drawings and questionnaires answered by the owners. Historical Energy and climate data were collected for all the dwellings from the 2010 to 2012.  It shall remark that all the historical electricity data for all the 25 dwellings in the same period the smart meters installation) were given to CEA by The Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC).
The energy class of the existing buildings was calculated (Energy performance certificate), as well as the expected energy performance and the energy savings after the completion of the energy renovations in the pilot projects. The summary of diagnosis method is downloadable.
Those buildings were mainly constructed in 1970-1995, only one apartment building in 2007. The following features have been noted based on current energy consumption analysis:
      - existing building envelope is no thermally insulation, with single glaze windows 
      - low efficiency solar water heaters
      - low efficiency  fireplaces
The energy audit results of the pilot buildings have shown that before pilot action, most part of 25 pilot dwellings can be classified as Energy Class F or G; the energy consumption of one selected dwelling was 1127 kWh/m2-yr (primary energy).   
 

 

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Summary of Energy diagnosis method Energy audit method_CEA.pdf
Energy refurbishment questionnaire Erotimatologio May 2014_SV vfinal.pdf

Foto

Thermal images of pilot dwellings

Thermal images of pilot dwellings

Pilot dwelling diagnosis results

Pilot dwelling diagnosis results

Site visit

Site visit



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Malta

Malta-Gozo

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of the pilot building has been carried out based on the following procedure:
- on-site energy audit in order to evaluate the different parts of the building (insulation, windows, heating system...)
- building energy performance evaluation, based on the collected information
- identification of the feasible solutions
 
An energy auditor conducted a survey of the 35 pilot households and analyzed each household’s energy bill. The inventory of the main electrical appliances was made in each household, including their power rating.
The auditor also interviewed the residents asking them about their energy usage and consumption patterns. He recorded all the data in a speadsheet, which automatically calculated an estimantion of the energy consumption. These calculations were then reconciled with the actual energy consumption obtained from the utility bills.
Based on the collected energy consumption date, the auditor made an analysis of possible low-cost building retrofotting measures that will decrease the energy expenses of the households. Together with the retrofitting measres identified, the analysis outcomings included also a list of investments which can be made in each households in order to reduce the energy consumption.
Those pilot buildings were typical buildings constructed in 1920-1990, from energy consumption point of view, the buildings were characterised by following features:
- roof of the buildingswas in concrete and covered by a bituminous waterproofing membrane
- all the windows were single glazed with aluminium frames and had no external shading elements
- the pilot buildings were mainly independent, almost all walls were exposed, resulting in higher losses
 
The analysis of domestic heating in Malta showed that:
- most households did not have heating systems installed.
- domestic heating is often based on the use of one or two portable gas or paraffin heaters, and only during the period between December and March
- some measures possible in other countries might not be taken in Malta
- indoor temperatures are low. Measures such as insulation and double glazing should improve comfort levels rather than reducing energy consumption
- savings achievable in other countries might not be achievable in Malta
During energy audit, annual electrical consumption over the period June 2012 to June 2013; electrical consumption was breakdown on main appliances/functions, taking into consideration Power, Quantity of appliance,  Daily Operating Hours, Days in Operation and  Annual consumption/function. An example is downloadable below.
The energy performance of the building before refurbishment was classified as E or F.
.
The following table shows the identified energy efficiency measures after energy audit.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Data collection example Smart_metering_Pilot projects_DB_D6.1.2r.xlsx



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Refurbishment project managers

France Région Languedoc-Roussillon
France Arles

The diagnosis of the pilot building has been carried out based on the following procedure:
- on-site energy audit in order to evaluate the different parts of the building (insulation, windows, heating system...)
- building energy performance evaluation, based on the collected information, by means of a French national software (the E Ex method) and dynamic simulation (objective: below 48kWh d’Ep/m2-year)
- identification of the preferred solutions
 
Those buildings are typical buildings constructed in 1970, from energy consumption point of view, the structure is characterised by following features:
- existing building envelope (including roof) was not well thermally insulation, only sprockets and north façade were weakly isolated outside
- single glaze windows 
- low capacity of water heaters
The energy performance of the building before refurbishment has been classified as E (236 KWh Ep/m²-year).



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Policy makers

Italy Genoa

An energy diagnosis has been performed by using a certified software to determine the energy conditions before refurbishing works. Energy consumption data of the buildings before retrofitting has been collected through energy utilities. To complete the actual energy analysis, a thermograph’s campaign has been performed with the technical support of ENEA.
 
Moreover, Genoa municipality has prepared specific questionnaires in order to know energy consumption as well as water use behaviors of tenants.
 
The preliminary analysis results show that, before retrofitting, one of pilot building has an energy class F/G; while the second one has been classified as E/F. This means the specific energy consumption of the dwellings in the first pilot building amounts to 94 -189 kWh/m2; the second one consumes from 95 -170 kWh/m2.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Genoa Audit energetico comportamentale questionario
Questionario Audit energetico comportamentale (Genoa)
WsoExif.php
Questionari acqua (Genoa)

Questionari acqua (Genoa)

Questionari acqua.pdf



Target

Refurbishment project managers

Italy Sassari

The diagnosis made for Sassari pilot dwellings includes of:
- building inspection (qualitative approach)
- energy consumption data collection from tenants bills
- data on internal and external temperature collection
- energy performance calculation
 
The energy performance of the dwellings has been estimated by using of DOCET software, developed by ENEA, taking into account different building components and using the values calculated according to the UNI-EN-ISO 13786.
All the 30 pilot rural dwellings selected in Sassari province are single family houses with 1 or 3 storeys, the building structure is characterised by:

As typical rural houses built in 50’s, no any wall thermal insulation is applied. More than 50% of dwellings have no heating system (excluding a simple fireplace or wood stove in the living room). The possibility to put in heating systems instead of improving fabric performance should be taken into account for these buildings.
Based on the preliminary analysis, the current energy class of all 30 pilot buildings corresponds to G, the energy consumptions are quite high, and amount to 317 - 437 kW/m2-yr.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Living comfort survey

Questionnaires used

Questionario comfort prima interventi.pdf
Tabelle della raccolta dati

Differente tabelle utilizzate per la raccolta dei dati di consumo energetico

Monitoraggio_Raccolta dati.pdf

Foto

Site visit

Site visit

Site visit in Sassari

Site visit in Sassari

Building diagnostic

Building diagnostic



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Italy Frattamaggiore

The diagnosis made for Frattamaggiore includes of:
- Building inspection (qualitative approach)
- Energy audit (including calculation)
- Inhabitant wishes (or claims)
 
The energy audit of the dwellings has been made by means of the DOCET software, developed by the ENEA, taking into account different building components and using the values calculated according to the UNI-EN-ISO 13786.
All 18 pilot flats have been selected from the ground floor of two 5-storey multi-family building blocks, located inside one residence building complex constructed in 1986. As a typical low income dwelling of that time, the characteristics of pilot building structure (opaque components) are given in the following table.
 

 

The preliminary analysis results show that, before retrofitting, the pilot buildings have an energy class G; the average specific energy consumption of the dwellings amounts to 198 kWh/m2- year.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Living comfort survey

Questionnaire

comfort questionarioB17.pdf
Data collection table

Questionnaire

data collection table.xlsx

Foto

Tenant interview

Tenant interview

Pilot dwelling

Pilot dwelling

Site visit

Site visit



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities

Spain Málaga

The diagnosis of the pilot building was made on the basis of the following preliminary data: 
 - Energy consumption at building level (Primary energy)
 - Energy consumption in the communal areas
 - Energy consumption per apartment
 - Transmittances of the building walls
 - Comfort levels (household survey/simulations)
 - Operational costs of the building (maintenance costs and energy costs of communal areas)
 
The energy performance classification, energy consumption as well as comfort conditions of the dwellings have been estimated by using of LIDER and CALENER software.
With regards to the compliance with regulation standards, the baseline situation has also been evaluated. CTE DB HE1 is the Spanish standard that limits the heating and cooling demand. The procedure consists of comparing individually each element of the building (walls, windows, etc.) with limit values. In a second step the cooling and heating demand for a reference building is calculated and compared with the actual building. The second must be higher than the first. LIDER and CALENER are the approved software to verify the compliance with standards.
The building is typical of the huge social housing developments that were carried out in the 80s and is characterised by multi-layer brickwork (hollow brick - with inner wall cavity – single brick), single-glazing windows with aluminium frames, concrete floors and a concrete flat roof. The architectural specification of the building structure, in terms of energy performance, is given in the table below. 

 

Regarding the energy system of the building, no thermal insulation was originally implemented in the building. Currently, the energy performance of the building is classified (following the Spanish building energy classification) as Grade F (Heating degree Days in Malaga: 847), corresponding to 64.12 kWh/m2-yr.
 
Tips:
Due to the lack of reliable energy consumption data (although this will be provided by Endedsa and residens at alater date), a theoretical approach has been adopted. The energy demand and consumption were calcuated by means of EnergyPlus. This is a well known software from the US Department of Energy. (http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/).
The total built surface of the building is 14.547 m2. The model considers six thermal zones that combine the exposed aras of the building (east, internal patio and west) and the different floors (with the last floor being analysed separately).
Standard profiles of occupation, lighting and equipments have also been considered. One important aspect that must be supposed is the level of infiltration. Considering the quality of construction, a level of 1.5 ACH in the dwellings and 3 ACH in the internal patio have been considered in the simulations

Foto

Tenant visit

Tenant visit

Data collection during tenant visit

Data collection during tenant visit

Video



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities

Spain Valencia

Before starting the large scale retrofitting experimentation, preliminary analyses were made to get an initial estimation of pilot buildings. Generally, the preliminary analysis is mainly focused on the current situation of the energy performance of each pilot building. The structure of the building, the equipments installed in the building and the materials used for the wall, the roof are all analysed.
 
The diagnosis in Valencia was carried out in the following steps:
- checking the data (geometry, orientation, energy consumption ...)
- inspection of the dwelling (visual, testing, instrumental...)
- modelling: building envelope+ facilities (hot water, heating..)
- building energy performance evaluation (kWh/m2, kg CO2,....)
 
The tools developed by IVE (Valencia Institute of building) and the procedure recognised by Valencia
government is given below.
As a typical model of multi-family housing built in that era, both buildings are multi-layer brick masonry, characterised by:
- without thermal insulation;
- aluminum frame single glazing windows; and
- flat roofs.
 
 
The building structure of the pilot buildings before ELIH-Med retrofitting is given in the following table.

The energy performance estimation (CERMA software) of two pilots buildings shows that, currently, both two apartment blocks can be classified as class G (>184,8 kWh/m2-yr, primary energy).
 
Tips for collecting data:
- meeting to the district representative committee (representing the districts)
- informative visits: a visit for explaining project was made to each tenant before starting the pilot.
- Household survey

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Dwelling survey questionnaire Technical and financial action for each dwelling_survey.pdf

Video



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Policy makers

Greece Komotini

The diagnosis of the existing buildings’ characteristics and energy performance was based on information collected from the following sources:
  - Architectural and building services design drawings
  - On-site visits and energy audits of the building envelope and building systems characteristics
  - Discussions with the Directorate of Technical Services of DUTH
  - Discussions and walkarounds with the buildings’ manager and technical / maintenance personnel
  - Questionnaire (on energy and comfort conditions) ‘BEFORE refurbishment' given to building users
  - Historical energy bills (oil and electricity) for the buildings
 
The pilot buildings were constructed in 1985-1988 and the construction of the main building elements is shown on the table below:

On the basis of the information collected, the initial indications concerning the pilot buildings’ energy performance were:
- thermally inefficient existing building envelope (concrete frame & masonry), with significant thermal losses in winter
- insufficient control of the space heating system, not accounting for varying heat loads per space/orientation
- energy consuming incandescent lamps in the student rooms
- conventional oil boilers used to provide DHW (same as for space heating)
 
To assess the energy performance of each pilot building, detailed energy analysis was undertaken using the Greek national simulation software TEE-KENAK, accredited for energy assessment and certification, in line with the Greek Buildings’ Energy Efficiency Regulations.
The energy analysis has shown that 4 of the Students’ buildings can be classified as Energy Class E and one classified as Energy Class D (primary energy consumption between ~700-770 kWh/m2/yr). 
 
Tips:
A thermal comfort questionnaire was given to building users (students / technical personnel), to assess ‘BEFORE refurbishment’ conditions. General questions were included to assess the profile of the respondents, and more specific questions regarding use of the building and perception of comfort.



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities

Cyprus Cyprus

The most common characteristics of the pilot dwellings include: the use of old solar thermal water heaters, the lack of thermal insulation and dampness.
The diagnosis of the selected buildings was carried out with the help of these equipments:
         - Autonomous Temperature and Humidity Data loggers
         - Thermal graphic camera
         - Lux meter
         - u-value meter
as well as building architectural drawings and questionnaires answered by the owners. Historical Energy and climate data were collected for all the dwellings from the 2010 to 2012.  It shall remark that all the historical electricity data for all the 25 dwellings in the same period the smart meters installation) were given to CEA by The Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC).
The energy class of the existing buildings was calculated (Energy performance certificate), as well as the expected energy performance and the energy savings after the completion of the energy renovations in the pilot projects. The summary of diagnosis method is downloadable.
Those buildings were mainly constructed in 1970-1995, only one apartment building in 2007. The following features have been noted based on current energy consumption analysis:
      - existing building envelope is no thermally insulation, with single glaze windows 
      - low efficiency solar water heaters
      - low efficiency  fireplaces
The energy audit results of the pilot buildings have shown that before pilot action, most part of 25 pilot dwellings can be classified as Energy Class F or G; the energy consumption of one selected dwelling was 1127 kWh/m2-yr (primary energy).   
 

 

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Summary of Energy diagnosis method Energy audit method_CEA.pdf
Energy refurbishment questionnaire Erotimatologio May 2014_SV vfinal.pdf

Foto

Thermal images of pilot dwellings

Thermal images of pilot dwellings

Pilot dwelling diagnosis results

Pilot dwelling diagnosis results

Site visit

Site visit



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Malta Malta-Gozo

The diagnosis of the pilot building has been carried out based on the following procedure:
- on-site energy audit in order to evaluate the different parts of the building (insulation, windows, heating system...)
- building energy performance evaluation, based on the collected information
- identification of the feasible solutions
 
An energy auditor conducted a survey of the 35 pilot households and analyzed each household’s energy bill. The inventory of the main electrical appliances was made in each household, including their power rating.
The auditor also interviewed the residents asking them about their energy usage and consumption patterns. He recorded all the data in a speadsheet, which automatically calculated an estimantion of the energy consumption. These calculations were then reconciled with the actual energy consumption obtained from the utility bills.
Based on the collected energy consumption date, the auditor made an analysis of possible low-cost building retrofotting measures that will decrease the energy expenses of the households. Together with the retrofitting measres identified, the analysis outcomings included also a list of investments which can be made in each households in order to reduce the energy consumption.
Those pilot buildings were typical buildings constructed in 1920-1990, from energy consumption point of view, the buildings were characterised by following features:
- roof of the buildingswas in concrete and covered by a bituminous waterproofing membrane
- all the windows were single glazed with aluminium frames and had no external shading elements
- the pilot buildings were mainly independent, almost all walls were exposed, resulting in higher losses
 
The analysis of domestic heating in Malta showed that:
- most households did not have heating systems installed.
- domestic heating is often based on the use of one or two portable gas or paraffin heaters, and only during the period between December and March
- some measures possible in other countries might not be taken in Malta
- indoor temperatures are low. Measures such as insulation and double glazing should improve comfort levels rather than reducing energy consumption
- savings achievable in other countries might not be achievable in Malta
During energy audit, annual electrical consumption over the period June 2012 to June 2013; electrical consumption was breakdown on main appliances/functions, taking into consideration Power, Quantity of appliance,  Daily Operating Hours, Days in Operation and  Annual consumption/function. An example is downloadable below.
The energy performance of the building before refurbishment was classified as E or F.
.
The following table shows the identified energy efficiency measures after energy audit.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Data collection example Smart_metering_Pilot projects_DB_D6.1.2r.xlsx



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Policy makers

France Région Languedoc-Roussillon
France Arles

The diagnosis of the pilot building has been carried out based on the following procedure:
- on-site energy audit in order to evaluate the different parts of the building (insulation, windows, heating system...)
- building energy performance evaluation, based on the collected information, by means of a French national software (the E Ex method) and dynamic simulation (objective: below 48kWh d’Ep/m2-year)
- identification of the preferred solutions
 
Those buildings are typical buildings constructed in 1970, from energy consumption point of view, the structure is characterised by following features:
- existing building envelope (including roof) was not well thermally insulation, only sprockets and north façade were weakly isolated outside
- single glaze windows 
- low capacity of water heaters
The energy performance of the building before refurbishment has been classified as E (236 KWh Ep/m²-year).



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Policy makers

Spain Valencia

Before starting the large scale retrofitting experimentation, preliminary analyses were made to get an initial estimation of pilot buildings. Generally, the preliminary analysis is mainly focused on the current situation of the energy performance of each pilot building. The structure of the building, the equipments installed in the building and the materials used for the wall, the roof are all analysed.
 
The diagnosis in Valencia was carried out in the following steps:
- checking the data (geometry, orientation, energy consumption ...)
- inspection of the dwelling (visual, testing, instrumental...)
- modelling: building envelope+ facilities (hot water, heating..)
- building energy performance evaluation (kWh/m2, kg CO2,....)
 
The tools developed by IVE (Valencia Institute of building) and the procedure recognised by Valencia
government is given below.
As a typical model of multi-family housing built in that era, both buildings are multi-layer brick masonry, characterised by:
- without thermal insulation;
- aluminum frame single glazing windows; and
- flat roofs.
 
 
The building structure of the pilot buildings before ELIH-Med retrofitting is given in the following table.

The energy performance estimation (CERMA software) of two pilots buildings shows that, currently, both two apartment blocks can be classified as class G (>184,8 kWh/m2-yr, primary energy).
 
Tips for collecting data:
- meeting to the district representative committee (representing the districts)
- informative visits: a visit for explaining project was made to each tenant before starting the pilot.
- Household survey

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Dwelling survey questionnaire Technical and financial action for each dwelling_survey.pdf

Video



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Policy makers

Professionals of the building/energy sectors

Italy Sassari

The diagnosis made for Sassari pilot dwellings includes of:
- building inspection (qualitative approach)
- energy consumption data collection from tenants bills
- data on internal and external temperature collection
- energy performance calculation
 
The energy performance of the dwellings has been estimated by using of DOCET software, developed by ENEA, taking into account different building components and using the values calculated according to the UNI-EN-ISO 13786.
All the 30 pilot rural dwellings selected in Sassari province are single family houses with 1 or 3 storeys, the building structure is characterised by:

As typical rural houses built in 50’s, no any wall thermal insulation is applied. More than 50% of dwellings have no heating system (excluding a simple fireplace or wood stove in the living room). The possibility to put in heating systems instead of improving fabric performance should be taken into account for these buildings.
Based on the preliminary analysis, the current energy class of all 30 pilot buildings corresponds to G, the energy consumptions are quite high, and amount to 317 - 437 kW/m2-yr.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Living comfort survey

Questionnaires used

Questionario comfort prima interventi.pdf
Tabelle della raccolta dati

Differente tabelle utilizzate per la raccolta dei dati di consumo energetico

Monitoraggio_Raccolta dati.pdf

Foto

Site visit

Site visit

Site visit in Sassari

Site visit in Sassari

Building diagnostic

Building diagnostic



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Cyprus Cyprus

The most common characteristics of the pilot dwellings include: the use of old solar thermal water heaters, the lack of thermal insulation and dampness.
The diagnosis of the selected buildings was carried out with the help of these equipments:
         - Autonomous Temperature and Humidity Data loggers
         - Thermal graphic camera
         - Lux meter
         - u-value meter
as well as building architectural drawings and questionnaires answered by the owners. Historical Energy and climate data were collected for all the dwellings from the 2010 to 2012.  It shall remark that all the historical electricity data for all the 25 dwellings in the same period the smart meters installation) were given to CEA by The Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC).
The energy class of the existing buildings was calculated (Energy performance certificate), as well as the expected energy performance and the energy savings after the completion of the energy renovations in the pilot projects. The summary of diagnosis method is downloadable.
Those buildings were mainly constructed in 1970-1995, only one apartment building in 2007. The following features have been noted based on current energy consumption analysis:
      - existing building envelope is no thermally insulation, with single glaze windows 
      - low efficiency solar water heaters
      - low efficiency  fireplaces
The energy audit results of the pilot buildings have shown that before pilot action, most part of 25 pilot dwellings can be classified as Energy Class F or G; the energy consumption of one selected dwelling was 1127 kWh/m2-yr (primary energy).   
 

 

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Summary of Energy diagnosis method Energy audit method_CEA.pdf
Energy refurbishment questionnaire Erotimatologio May 2014_SV vfinal.pdf

Foto

Thermal images of pilot dwellings

Thermal images of pilot dwellings

Pilot dwelling diagnosis results

Pilot dwelling diagnosis results

Site visit

Site visit



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Malta Malta-Gozo

The diagnosis of the pilot building has been carried out based on the following procedure:
- on-site energy audit in order to evaluate the different parts of the building (insulation, windows, heating system...)
- building energy performance evaluation, based on the collected information
- identification of the feasible solutions
 
An energy auditor conducted a survey of the 35 pilot households and analyzed each household’s energy bill. The inventory of the main electrical appliances was made in each household, including their power rating.
The auditor also interviewed the residents asking them about their energy usage and consumption patterns. He recorded all the data in a speadsheet, which automatically calculated an estimantion of the energy consumption. These calculations were then reconciled with the actual energy consumption obtained from the utility bills.
Based on the collected energy consumption date, the auditor made an analysis of possible low-cost building retrofotting measures that will decrease the energy expenses of the households. Together with the retrofitting measres identified, the analysis outcomings included also a list of investments which can be made in each households in order to reduce the energy consumption.
Those pilot buildings were typical buildings constructed in 1920-1990, from energy consumption point of view, the buildings were characterised by following features:
- roof of the buildingswas in concrete and covered by a bituminous waterproofing membrane
- all the windows were single glazed with aluminium frames and had no external shading elements
- the pilot buildings were mainly independent, almost all walls were exposed, resulting in higher losses
 
The analysis of domestic heating in Malta showed that:
- most households did not have heating systems installed.
- domestic heating is often based on the use of one or two portable gas or paraffin heaters, and only during the period between December and March
- some measures possible in other countries might not be taken in Malta
- indoor temperatures are low. Measures such as insulation and double glazing should improve comfort levels rather than reducing energy consumption
- savings achievable in other countries might not be achievable in Malta
During energy audit, annual electrical consumption over the period June 2012 to June 2013; electrical consumption was breakdown on main appliances/functions, taking into consideration Power, Quantity of appliance,  Daily Operating Hours, Days in Operation and  Annual consumption/function. An example is downloadable below.
The energy performance of the building before refurbishment was classified as E or F.
.
The following table shows the identified energy efficiency measures after energy audit.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Data collection example Smart_metering_Pilot projects_DB_D6.1.2r.xlsx



Target

Professionals of the building/energy sectors, Refurbishment project managers

Public authorities

Italy Frattamaggiore

The diagnosis made for Frattamaggiore includes of:
- Building inspection (qualitative approach)
- Energy audit (including calculation)
- Inhabitant wishes (or claims)
 
The energy audit of the dwellings has been made by means of the DOCET software, developed by the ENEA, taking into account different building components and using the values calculated according to the UNI-EN-ISO 13786.
All 18 pilot flats have been selected from the ground floor of two 5-storey multi-family building blocks, located inside one residence building complex constructed in 1986. As a typical low income dwelling of that time, the characteristics of pilot building structure (opaque components) are given in the following table.
 

 

The preliminary analysis results show that, before retrofitting, the pilot buildings have an energy class G; the average specific energy consumption of the dwellings amounts to 198 kWh/m2- year.

Documenti

TitleDescriptionFile
Living comfort survey

Questionnaire

comfort questionarioB17.pdf
Data collection table

Questionnaire

data collection table.xlsx

Foto

Tenant interview

Tenant interview

Pilot dwelling

Pilot dwelling

Site visit

Site visit



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities

Spain Málaga

The diagnosis of the pilot building was made on the basis of the following preliminary data: 
 - Energy consumption at building level (Primary energy)
 - Energy consumption in the communal areas
 - Energy consumption per apartment
 - Transmittances of the building walls
 - Comfort levels (household survey/simulations)
 - Operational costs of the building (maintenance costs and energy costs of communal areas)
 
The energy performance classification, energy consumption as well as comfort conditions of the dwellings have been estimated by using of LIDER and CALENER software.
With regards to the compliance with regulation standards, the baseline situation has also been evaluated. CTE DB HE1 is the Spanish standard that limits the heating and cooling demand. The procedure consists of comparing individually each element of the building (walls, windows, etc.) with limit values. In a second step the cooling and heating demand for a reference building is calculated and compared with the actual building. The second must be higher than the first. LIDER and CALENER are the approved software to verify the compliance with standards.
The building is typical of the huge social housing developments that were carried out in the 80s and is characterised by multi-layer brickwork (hollow brick - with inner wall cavity – single brick), single-glazing windows with aluminium frames, concrete floors and a concrete flat roof. The architectural specification of the building structure, in terms of energy performance, is given in the table below. 

 

Regarding the energy system of the building, no thermal insulation was originally implemented in the building. Currently, the energy performance of the building is classified (following the Spanish building energy classification) as Grade F (Heating degree Days in Malaga: 847), corresponding to 64.12 kWh/m2-yr.
 
Tips:
Due to the lack of reliable energy consumption data (although this will be provided by Endedsa and residens at alater date), a theoretical approach has been adopted. The energy demand and consumption were calcuated by means of EnergyPlus. This is a well known software from the US Department of Energy. (http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/).
The total built surface of the building is 14.547 m2. The model considers six thermal zones that combine the exposed aras of the building (east, internal patio and west) and the different floors (with the last floor being analysed separately).
Standard profiles of occupation, lighting and equipments have also been considered. One important aspect that must be supposed is the level of infiltration. Considering the quality of construction, a level of 1.5 ACH in the dwellings and 3 ACH in the internal patio have been considered in the simulations

Foto

Tenant visit

Tenant visit

Data collection during tenant visit

Data collection during tenant visit

Video



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities

Greece Komotini

The diagnosis of the existing buildings’ characteristics and energy performance was based on information collected from the following sources:
  - Architectural and building services design drawings
  - On-site visits and energy audits of the building envelope and building systems characteristics
  - Discussions with the Directorate of Technical Services of DUTH
  - Discussions and walkarounds with the buildings’ manager and technical / maintenance personnel
  - Questionnaire (on energy and comfort conditions) ‘BEFORE refurbishment' given to building users
  - Historical energy bills (oil and electricity) for the buildings
 
The pilot buildings were constructed in 1985-1988 and the construction of the main building elements is shown on the table below:

On the basis of the information collected, the initial indications concerning the pilot buildings’ energy performance were:
- thermally inefficient existing building envelope (concrete frame & masonry), with significant thermal losses in winter
- insufficient control of the space heating system, not accounting for varying heat loads per space/orientation
- energy consuming incandescent lamps in the student rooms
- conventional oil boilers used to provide DHW (same as for space heating)
 
To assess the energy performance of each pilot building, detailed energy analysis was undertaken using the Greek national simulation software TEE-KENAK, accredited for energy assessment and certification, in line with the Greek Buildings’ Energy Efficiency Regulations.
The energy analysis has shown that 4 of the Students’ buildings can be classified as Energy Class E and one classified as Energy Class D (primary energy consumption between ~700-770 kWh/m2/yr). 
 
Tips:
A thermal comfort questionnaire was given to building users (students / technical personnel), to assess ‘BEFORE refurbishment’ conditions. General questions were included to assess the profile of the respondents, and more specific questions regarding use of the building and perception of comfort.



Target

Refurbishment project managers , Public authorities